Warschau 1944

Review of: Warschau 1944

Reviewed by:
On 22.12.2019
Last modified:22.12.2019


Jahre spter, 2003, Fullmetal Alchemist erscheint morgen movie or Why the body and watch all participants.

Warschau 1944

Warschauer Aufstand qualvolle Tage in Polen. Vor 75 Jahren erhob sich in Warschau der bewaffnete Widerstand gegen die deutschen. einsetzte, stoppte Feldmarschall Model vor Warschau die Rote Armee – mit fatalen Folgen für den Aufstand in Polens Kapitale. Angehörige der polnischen Heimatarmee während des Warschauer Aufstands Imago. Warschauer vegetieren im Spätsommer.

Warschau 1944 Kommentar: Das Hiroshima Europas

Der Warschauer Aufstand war die militärische Erhebung der Polnischen Heimatarmee gegen die deutsche Besatzungsmacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg in Warschau vom 1. August bis zum 2. Oktober Im Juli fanden mehrere geheime Sitzungen der AK-Führung in Warschau statt, in denen über verschiedene Varianten des Aufstandes debattiert wurde. deutschen Besatzungstruppen geschah im Herbst Vorangegangen war die Niederschlagung des Warschauer Aufstandes. Im Rahmen des Aufstandes. Deutsche Soldaten bei Kämpfen während des Warschauer Aufstands, (​Foto: Süddeutsche Zeitung Photo). Im Spätsommer schlagen. August einen Aufstand gegen die deutschen Besatzer. Die rund Soldaten der Armia Krajowa unter Führung von General Graf Tadeusz Komorowski . Warschauer Aufstand qualvolle Tage in Polen. Vor 75 Jahren erhob sich in Warschau der bewaffnete Widerstand gegen die deutschen. August erhob sich die Armia Krajowa ("Polnische Heimatarmee") im "​Warschauer Aufstand" gegen die deutsche Besatzungsmacht.

Warschau 1944

Der Aufstand mutiger Warschauer im Sommer wurde von den Nazis blutig niedergeschlagen. Zum Jahrestag diskutierte Polen. deutschen Besatzungstruppen geschah im Herbst Vorangegangen war die Niederschlagung des Warschauer Aufstandes. Im Rahmen des Aufstandes. Warschauer Aufstand qualvolle Tage in Polen. Vor 75 Jahren erhob sich in Warschau der bewaffnete Widerstand gegen die deutschen.

The term resurfaced during the September German invasion of Poland. Later in the second war, the term resurfaced between September and January , when the retreating Germans tried to establish a defense in the city against the advancing Soviet Union.

During the invasion of Poland in the German troops reached the outskirts of Warsaw on 9 September. The Oberkommando des Heeres OKH assumed that the unfortified city damaged by countless terror bombing raids would be taken by German motorized units without any resistance and issued a press and radio release stating that the capital of Poland was taken.

However, the German motorized assault was defeated and the advancing troops were forced to retreat with heavy casualties. From 8 September the city started to be referred to as Fortress of Warsaw in German broadcasts, which was to justify the aerial bombardment of civilian targets.

The Germans laid a siege to the city and started shelling it with heavy artillery located in the outskirts. However, the defending troops managed to defeat all assaults and until the end of September the Germans could not manage to break into the city.

After three weeks of constant aerial and artillery bombardment and assaults, the situation of the civilian inhabitants of Warsaw became dire.

Food, water and medicine shortages as well as the Luftwaffe strafing inhabitants and refugees grouped within the city caused Warsaw's civilian authorities to request a cease-fire.

Walerian Czuma , commander of the Warsaw garrison, decided that further resistance, although possible, would only expose the civilians to unnecessary hardship and signed the capitulation on 28 September The German text of the capitulation treaty as well as German propaganda used the term Festung Warschau to suggest that the failures of the Wehrmacht were due to heavily fortified terrain they had to cross.

Warsaw, as a former Russian fortress, had several older fortifications, e. But those fortifications failed to prevent the city from being overrun in World War I, as Warsaw was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian troops in By , the German Eastern Front's situation became hopeless.

Adolf Hitler who took over personally many duties in the OKW and OKH ordered the no step back policy in an attempt to halt the Soviet offensives which could not be contained by open field battle anymore.

Following this policy, several cities were declared Festungen Fortresses and were to be held by the German army at all costs, even if surrounded and with no hope to break the siege.

Examples of this policy were the Festung Stalingrad and Festung Kiev. Polish Army in the East from 14 September [1]. Home Army. Polish First Army.

Warsaw Garrison. US Army Air Force. German forces : 2,—17, [8] [9] [10] [11] killed and missing 9, WIA. The uprising was timed to coincide with the retreat of the German forces from Poland ahead of the Soviet advance.

The Uprising was fought for 63 days with little outside support. It was the single largest military effort taken by any European resistance movement during World War II.

The main Polish objectives were to drive the Germans out of Warsaw while helping the Allies defeat Germany. An additional, political goal of the Polish Underground State was to liberate Poland's capital and assert Polish sovereignty before the Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation could assume control.

Other immediate causes included a threat of mass German round-ups of able-bodied Poles for "evacuation" ; calls by Radio Moscow 's Polish Service for uprising; and an emotional Polish desire for justice and revenge against the enemy after five years of German occupation.

Initially, the Poles established control over most of central Warsaw, but the Soviets ignored Polish attempts to make radio contact with them and did not advance beyond the city limits.

Intense street fighting between the Germans and Poles continued. By 14 September, the eastern bank of the Vistula River opposite the Polish resistance positions was taken over by the Polish troops fighting under the Soviet command ; 1, men made it across the river, but they were not reinforced by the Red Army.

This, and the lack of air support from the Soviet air base five-minutes flying time away, led to allegations that Joseph Stalin tactically halted his forces to let the operation fail and allow the Polish resistance to be crushed.

Arthur Koestler called the Soviet attitude "one of the major infamies of this war which will rank for the future historian on the same ethical level with Lidice.

Winston Churchill pleaded with Stalin and Franklin D. Roosevelt to help Britain's Polish allies, to no avail. Later, after gaining Soviet air clearance, the U.

Army Air Force sent one high-level mass airdrop as part of Operation Frantic. Although the exact number of casualties is unknown, it is estimated that about 16, members of the Polish resistance were killed and about 6, badly wounded.

In addition, between , and , Polish civilians died, mostly from mass executions. Jews being harboured by Poles were exposed by German house-to-house clearances and mass evictions of entire neighbourhoods.

German casualties totalled over 2, to 17, soldiers killed and missing. In , Poland had been occupied by Nazi Germany for almost five years.

The Polish Home Army planned some form of rebellion against German forces. The initial plan of the Home Army was to link up with the invading forces of the Western Allies as they liberated Europe from the Nazis.

However, when the Soviet Army began its offensive in , it became clear that Poland would be liberated by it instead of the Western Allies.

In this country, we have one point from which every evil emanates. That point is Warsaw. If we didn't have Warsaw in the General Government , we wouldn't have four-fifths of the difficulties with which we must contend.

The Soviets and the Poles had a common enemy—Germany—but were working towards different post-war goals: the Home Army desired a pro-Western, capitalist Poland, but the Soviet leader Stalin intended to establish a pro-Soviet, socialist Poland.

It became obvious that the advancing Soviet Red Army might not come to Poland as an ally but rather only as "the ally of an ally".

The Soviets and the Poles distrusted each other and Soviet partisans in Poland often clashed with a Polish resistance increasingly united under the Home Army's front.

Afterwards, Stalin created the Rudenko Commission, whose goal was to blame the Germans for the war crime at all costs.

The Western alliance accepted Stalin's words as truth in order to keep the Anti-Nazi alliance intact. On the approach of the Eastern Front , local units of the Home Army were to harass the German Wehrmacht in the rear and co-operate with incoming Soviet units as much as possible.

Although doubts existed about the military necessity of a major uprising, planning continued. The situation came to a head on 13 July as the Soviet offensive crossed the old Polish border.

At this point the Poles had to make a decision: either initiate the uprising in the current difficult political situation and risk a lack of Soviet support, or fail to rebel and face Soviet propaganda describing the Home Army as impotent or worse, Nazi collaborators.

They feared that if Poland was liberated by the Red Army, then the Allies would ignore the London-based Polish government in the aftermath of the war.

The urgency for a final decision on strategy increased as it became clear that, after successful Polish-Soviet co-operation in the liberation of Polish territory for example, in Operation Ostra Brama , Soviet security forces behind the frontline shot or arrested Polish officers and forcibly conscripted lower ranks into the Soviet-controlled forces.

In the early summer of , German plans required Warsaw to serve as the defensive centre of the area and to be held at all costs.

The Germans had fortifications constructed and built up their forces in the area. This process slowed after the failed 20 July plot to assassinate the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler , and around that time, the Germans in Warsaw were weak and visibly demoralized.

Every Polish homestead must become a stronghold in the struggle against the invaders Not a moment is to be lost. On 29 July, the first Soviet armoured units reached the outskirts of Warsaw, where they were counter-attacked by two German Panzer Corps: the 39th and 4th SS.

The Polish Army now entering Polish territory, trained in the Soviet Union, is now joined to the People's Army to form the Corps of the Polish Armed Forces, the armed arm of our nation in its struggle for independence.

Its ranks will be joined tomorrow by the sons of Warsaw. They will all together, with the Allied Army pursue the enemy westwards, wipe out the Hitlerite vermin from Polish land and strike a mortal blow at the beast of Prussian Imperialism.

Even so, another late afternoon briefing of Bor-Komorowski's Staff was arranged for five o'clock At about 5.

Col 'Monter' arrived at the briefing, reporting that the Russian tanks were already entering Praga and insisting on the immediate launching of the Home Army operations inside the city as otherwise it 'might be too late'.

Hence they assumed that the Russo-German battle for Warsaw was approaching its climax and that this presented them with an excellent opportunity to capture Warsaw before the Red Army entered the capital.

The Soviet radio appeals calling upon the people of Warsaw to rise against the Germans, regardless of Moscow's intentions, had very little influence on the Polish authorities responsible for the insurrection".

Within the framework of the entire enemy intelligence operations directed against Germany, the intelligence service of the Polish resistance movement assumed major significance.

The scope and importance of the operations of the Polish resistance movement, which was ramified down to the smallest splinter group and brilliantly organized, have been in various sources disclosed in connection with carrying out of major police security operations.

The Home Army forces of the Warsaw District numbered between 20,, [3] [44] and 49, soldiers. The forces lacked equipment, [6] because the Home Army had shuttled weapons to the east of the country before the decision to include Warsaw in Operation Tempest.

The exact number of the foreign fighters obcokrajowcy in Polish , who fought in Warsaw for Poland's independence, is difficult to determine, taking into consideration the chaotic character of the Uprising causing their irregular registration.

These people — emigrants who had settled in Warsaw before the war, escapees from numerous POW, concentration and labor camps, and deserters from the German auxiliary forces — were absorbed in different fighting and supportive formations of the Polish underground.

During the fighting, the Poles obtained additional supplies through airdrops and by capture from the enemy, including several armoured vehicles , notably two Panther tanks and two Sd.

In late July the German units stationed in and around Warsaw were divided into three categories. The first and the most numerous was the garrison of Warsaw.

As of 31 July, it numbered some 11, troops under General Rainer Stahel. These well-equipped German forces prepared for the defence of the city's key positions for many months.

Several hundred concrete bunkers and barbed wire lines protected the buildings and areas occupied by the Germans. Apart from the garrison itself, numerous army units were stationed on both banks of the Vistula and in the city.

The second category was formed by police and SS under Col. During the uprising the German side received reinforcements on a daily basis.

After days of hesitation, at on 31 July, the Polish headquarters scheduled "W-hour" from the Polish wybuch , "explosion" , the moment of the start of the uprising for on the following day.

In addition, although many units were already mobilized and waiting at assembly points throughout the city, the mobilization of thousands of young men and women was hard to conceal.

That evening the resistance captured a major German arsenal, the main post office and power station and the Prudential building.

However, Castle Square, the police district, and the airport remained in German hands. However, several major German strongholds remained, and in some areas of Wola the Poles sustained heavy losses that forced an early retreat.

In Praga , on the east bank of the Vistula, the Poles were sent back into hiding by a high concentration of German forces.

After the first hours of fighting, many units adopted a more defensive strategy, while civilians began erecting barricades.

Despite all the problems, by 4 August the majority of the city was in Polish hands, although some key strategic points remained untaken.

My Führer, the timing is unfortunate, but from a historical perspective what the Poles are doing is a blessing. After five, six weeks we shall leave.

But by then Warsaw, the capital, the head, the intelligence of this former 16—17 million Polish people will be extinguished, this Volk that has blocked our way to the east for seven hundred years and has stood in our way ever since the First Battle of Tannenberg [in ].

After this the Polish problem will no longer be a great historical problem for the children who come after us, nor indeed will it be for us.

The uprising was intended to last a few days until Soviet forces arrived; [77] however, this never happened, and the Polish forces had to fight with little outside assistance.

The results of the first two days of fighting in different parts of the city were as follows:. An additional area within the Polish command structure was formed by the units of the Directorate of Sabotage and Diversion or Kedyw , an elite formation that was to guard the headquarters and was to be used as an "armed ambulance", thrown into the battle in the most endangered areas.

At this time, the head of the government in exile Mikolajczyk met with Stalin on August 3, in Moscow and raised the questions of his imminent arrival in Warsaw, the return to power of his government in Poland, as well as the Eastern borders of Poland, while categorically refusing to recognize the Curzon Line as the basis for negotiations.

The question of assistance to the insurrection was not raised by Mikolajczyk, apparently for reasons that it might weaken the position in the negotiations.

Nothing was agreed about the Uprising. The Uprising reached its apogee on 4 August when the Home Army soldiers managed to establish front lines in the westernmost boroughs of Wola and Ochota.

However, it was also the moment at which the German army stopped its retreat westwards and began receiving reinforcements.

On the same day SS General Erich von dem Bach was appointed commander of all the forces employed against the Uprising.

Among the reinforcing units were forces under the command of Heinz Reinefarth. Their advance was halted, but the regiments began carrying out Heinrich Himmler 's orders: behind the lines, special SS, police and Wehrmacht groups went from house to house, shooting the inhabitants regardless of age or gender and burning their bodies.

The policy was designed to crush the Poles' will to fight and put the uprising to an end without having to commit to heavy city fighting.

This did not succeed. Until mid-September, the Germans shot all captured resistance fighters on the spot, but from the end of September, some of the captured Polish soldiers were treated as POWs.

This is the fiercest of our battles since the start of the war. It compares to the street battles of Stalingrad. Despite the loss of Wola, the Polish resistance strengthened.

On 7 August German forces were strengthened by the arrival of tanks using civilians as human shields. However, by then the net of barricades, street fortifications, and tank obstacles were already well-prepared; both sides reached a stalemate, with heavy house-to-house fighting.

Between 9 and 18 August pitched battles raged around the Old Town and nearby Bankowy Square, with successful attacks by the Germans and counter-attacks from the Poles.

German tactics hinged on bombardment through the use of heavy artillery [95] and tactical bombers , against which the Poles were unable to effectively defend, as they lacked anti-aircraft artillery weapons.

Even clearly marked hospitals were dive-bombed by Stukas. Although the Battle of Stalingrad had already shown the danger a city can pose to armies which fight within it and the importance of local support, the Warsaw Uprising was probably the first demonstration that in an urban terrain, a vastly under-equipped force supported by the civilian population can hold its own against better-equipped professional soldiers—though at the cost of considerable sacrifice on the part of the city's residents.

The Poles held the Old Town until a decision to withdraw was made at the end of August. On successive nights until 2 September, the defenders of the Old Town withdrew through the sewers, which were a major means of communication between different parts of the Uprising.

Those that remained were either shot or transported to concentration camps like Mauthausen and Sachsenhausen once the Germans regained control.

The Soviet army under the command of Konstantin Rokossovsky captured Praga and arrived on the east bank of the Vistula in mid-September.

By 13 September, the Germans had destroyed the remaining bridges over the Vistula, signalling that they were abandoning all their positions east of the river.

The artillery cover and air support provided by the Soviets was unable to effectively counter enemy machine-gun fire as the Poles crossed the river, and the landing troops sustained heavy losses.

The limited landings by the 1st Polish Army represented the only external ground force which arrived to physically support the uprising; and even they were curtailed by the Soviet High Command due to the losses they took.

The Germans intensified their attacks on the Home Army positions near the river to prevent any further landings, but were not able to make any significant advances for several days while Polish forces held those vital positions in preparation for a new expected wave of Soviet landings.

Polish units from the eastern shore attempted several more landings, and from 15 to 23 September sustained heavy losses including the destruction of all their landing boats and most of their other river crossing equipment.

Conditions that prevented the Germans from dislodging the resistance also acted to prevent the Poles from dislodging the Germans.

Plans for a river crossing were suspended "for at least 4 months", since operations against the 9th Army's five panzer divisions were problematic at that point, and the commander of the 1st Polish Army, General Berling was relieved of his duties by his Soviet superiors.

On the night of 19 September, after no further attempts from the other side of the river were made and the promised evacuation of wounded did not take place, Home Army soldiers and landed elements of the 1st Polish Army were forced to begin a retreat from their positions on the bank of the river.

In Warsaw had roughly 1,, inhabitants. Over a million were still living in the city at the start of the Uprising. In Polish-controlled territory, during the first weeks of the Uprising, people tried to recreate the normal day-to-day life of their free country.

Cultural life was vibrant, both among the soldiers and civilian population, with theatres, post offices, newspapers and similar activities. As the Uprising was supposed to be relieved by the Soviets in a matter of days, the Polish underground did not predict food shortages would be a problem.

However, as the fighting dragged on, the inhabitants of the city faced hunger and starvation. A major break-through took place on 6 August, when Polish units recaptured the Haberbusch i Schiele brewery complex at Ceglana Street.

From that time on the citizens of Warsaw lived mostly on barley from the brewery's warehouses. Every day up to several thousand people organized into cargo teams reported to the brewery for bags of barley and then distributed them in the city centre.

The barley was then ground in coffee grinders and boiled with water to form a so-called spit-soup Polish : pluj-zupa. Another serious problem for civilians and soldiers alike was a shortage of water.

In addition, the main water pumping station remained in German hands. On 21 September the Germans blew up the remaining pumping stations at Koszykowa Street and after that the public wells were the only source of potable water in the besieged city.

Before the Uprising the Bureau of Information and Propaganda of the Home Army had set up a group of war correspondents.

Headed by Antoni Bohdziewicz , the group made three newsreels and over 30, meters of film tape documenting the struggles.

Several previously underground newspapers started to be distributed openly. There were also several dozen newspapers, magazines, bulletins and weeklies published routinely by various organizations and military units.

According to many historians, a major cause of the eventual failure of the uprising was the almost complete lack of outside support and the late arrival of that which did arrive.

The Polish government in London asked the British several times to send an allied mission to Poland. The only support operation which ran continuously for the duration of the Uprising were night supply drops by long-range planes of the RAF, other British Commonwealth air forces, and units of the Polish Air Force , which had to use distant airfields in Italy, reducing the amount of supplies they could carry.

The RAF made sorties and lost 34 aircraft. The effect of these airdrops was mostly psychological—they delivered too few supplies for the needs of the resistance, and many airdrops landed outside Polish-controlled territory.

There was no difficulty in finding Warsaw. It was visible from kilometers away. The city was in flames but with so many huge fires burning, it was almost impossible to pick up the target marker flares.

From 4 August the Western Allies began supporting the Uprising with airdrops of munitions and other supplies. Later on, at the insistence of the Polish government-in-exile, [ citation needed ] they were joined by the Liberators of 2 Wing — No.

The total weight of allied drops varies according to source tons, [] tons [] or tons [22] , over flights were made.

The Soviet Union did not allow the Western Allies to use its airports for the airdrops [7] for several weeks, [] so the planes had to use bases in the United Kingdom and Italy which reduced their carrying weight and number of sorties.

The Allies' specific request for the use of landing strips made on 20 August was denied by Stalin on 22 August. American support was also limited.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt on 25 August and proposed sending planes in defiance of Stalin, to "see what happens". Unwilling to upset Stalin before the Yalta Conference , Roosevelt replied on 26 August: "I do not consider it advantageous to the long-range general war prospect for me to join you".

The planes dropped tons of supplies but only 20 were recovered by the resistance due to the wide area over which they were spread. The aircraft landed at the Operation Frantic airbases in the Soviet Union, where they were rearmed and refueled, and the next day Bs and 61 Ps left the USSR to bomb the marshalling yard at Szolnok in Hungary on their way back to bases in Italy.

Between 13 and 30 September Soviet aircraft commenced their own re-supply missions, dropping arms, medicines and food supplies.

Initially these supplies were dropped in canisters without parachutes [] which led to damage and loss of the contents. The level of losses during the operation was very high, especially for the conditions of mid In the first flight on 4—5 August, 5 out of 7 aircraft were lost.

For example, on August 13—14, 3 planes out of 28 were shot down, and 4 planes were forced to make forced landings in territories occupied by the USSR due to damage.

Fight The Germans! No doubt Warsaw already hears the guns of the battle which is soon to bring her liberation The role of the Red Army during the Warsaw Uprising remains controversial and is still disputed by historians.

This basic scenario of an uprising against the Germans, launched a few days before the arrival of Allied forces, played out successfully in a number of European capitals, such as Paris [] and Prague.

However, despite easy capture of area south-east of Warsaw barely 10 kilometres 6. At that time city outskirts were defended by the under-manned and under-equipped German 73rd Infantry Division which was destroyed many times on the Eastern Front and was yet-again being reconstituted.

The Red Army was fighting intense battles further to the south of Warsaw, to seize and maintain bridgeheads over the Vistula river, and to the north of the city, to gain bridgeheads over the river Narew.

The best German armoured divisions were fighting on those sectors. Despite the fact, both of these objectives had been mostly secured by September.

Yet the Soviet 47th Army did not move into Praga Warsaw's suburbs on the right bank of the Vistula, until 11 September when the Uprising was basically over.

In three days the Soviets quickly gained control of the suburb, a few hundred meters from the main battle on the other side of the river, as the resistance by the German 73rd Division collapsed quickly.

Had the Soviets done this in early August, the crossing of the river would have been easier, as the Poles then held considerable stretches of the riverfront.

The Poles were counting on the Soviet forces to cross to the left bank where the main battle of the uprising was occurring.

Though Berling's communist 1st Polish Army did cross the river, their support from the Soviets was inadequate and the main Soviet force did not follow them.

One of the reasons given for the collapse of the Uprising was the reluctance of the Soviet Red Army to help the Polish resistance. On 1 August, the day of Uprising, the Soviet advance was halted by a direct order from the Kremlin.

On 1 August , the underground Polish Home Army , being in contact with and loyal to the Polish government-in-exile in London, began offensive operations in Warsaw, in an attempt to free the city from the occupying German forces before the Red Army could secure the capital.

With his own army stopped on the Vistula River and facing Warsaw itself, and without first consulting his Soviet superiors, Berling may have independently issued orders to engage the German enemy and to come to the aid of the Polish resistance.

But it was a small landing without any tactical support from Berling or other Soviet units that could not make a difference in the situation of Warsaw.

Yet this behaviour may have caused Berlings' dismissal from his post soon after. When Stalin and Churchill met face-to-face in October , Stalin told Churchill that the lack of Soviet support was a direct result of a major reverse in the Vistula sector in August, which had to be kept secret for strategic reasons.

The Soviet units which reached the outskirts of Warsaw in the final days of July had advanced from the 1st Belorussian Front in Western Ukraine as part of the Lublin—Brest Offensive , between the Lvov—Sandomierz Offensive on its left and Operation Bagration on its right.

These included many infantry units of poor quality, [] and 4—5 high quality Panzer Divisions in the 39th Panzer Corps and 4th SS Panzer Corps [36] pulled from their refits.

Other explanations for Soviet conduct are possible. The Red Army geared for a major thrust into the Balkans through Romania in mid-August and a large proportion of Soviet resources was sent in that direction, while the offensive in Poland was put on hold.

According to David Glantz military historian and a retired US Army colonel, as well as a member of the Russian Federation's Academy of Natural Sciences , the Red Army was simply unable to extend effective support to the uprising, which began too early, regardless of Stalin's political intentions.

Declassified documents from Soviet archives reveal that Stalin gave instructions to cut off the Warsaw resistance from any outside help.

The urgent orders issued to the Red Army troops in Poland on 23 August stipulated that the Home Army units in Soviet-controlled areas should be prevented from reaching Warsaw and helping the Uprising, their members apprehended and disarmed.

Only from mid-September, under pressure from the Western Allies, the Soviets began to provide some limited assistance to the resistance.

Modern Russian historians generally hold the view that the failure of the uprising in Warsaw was caused primarily by the mistakes of the leadership of the uprising.

They point out that in July , according to the Directive of the command, the Soviet troops did not have the goal of attacking Warsaw, but only to the suburbs of Warsaw — Prague with access to the Vistula river line.

Since the Soviet command understood that it was unlikely to be possible to capture the bridges over the Vistula and the Germans would blow them up.

The Soviet forces aimed to advance in the northern direction with the capture of East Prussia and with the priority task of reaching the line of the Vistula and Narew rivers and capturing bridgeheads.

Then the offensive against East Prussia was to begin from these bridgeheads. In the future keep in mind to advance in the General direction of Thorn and Lodz" [].

The liberation of Warsaw was planned by a flanking maneuver after the start of a General offensive in the direction of East Prussia and Berlin.

This is exactly how it happened, only in January The AK leadership made a mistake, it took the left flank of the 2nd Tank army, which was advancing to north, for the vanguard, which was allegedly advancing on Warsaw.

And the order was given to start the uprising, which led to defeat. A terrible mistake, but in essence inevitable, if the leadership of the uprising took a political line about the lack of coordination with the Soviet command, if the goal was that Warsaw should be freed from the Germans 'by Polish effort alone 12 hours before the entry of the Soviets into the capital'.

Several units of the Royal Hungarian Army were stationed around Warsaw before and during the uprising. Hungarians and Poles have maintained very friendly relations for centuries and neither individual soldiers nor their commanders wished to break this tradition.

Hungarian military bands often played Polish patriotic songs and anthems which were banned under the death penalty by the Germans, or rendered aid in their field hospitals to wounded Polish partisans.

Although their troops were formally subordinated to the German 9th army, they refused to participate in the quelling of the uprising.

Instead they supported the Polish side as much as it was possible without actually switching sides and getting into an open conflict with the Germans.

Since August the elite Hungarian 1st Cavalry Division were stationed on the outskirts of the Polish capital, in the forests of Kampinos.

The unit was withdrawn from the front for recuperation and refitting. When the uprising began, the Hungarian soldiers passed equipment, food, supplies, even weapons and ammunition to Polish fighters who they were supposed to disarm and capture.

They also informed them about German plans and troop movements. Very often the two sides agreed to feign a "partisan attack" on supply vehicles, and after a mock firefight the Hungarians "fled" and let the Poles "pillage" their supplies, which often included large shipments of firearms.

At other times they let Polish units through their lines but blocked the way from Germans who were chasing them.

At other times individual Polish soldiers found asylum at Hungarian units who "captured" and refused to extradite them to the Germans.

There were several incidents when Hungarian soldiers threatened Germans with weapons to protect these refugees.

When the Germans ordered the 5th Hungarian infantry division to withdraw from Warsaw's vicinity, they left behind equipment and ammunition for the partisans.

They also frequently provided them with Hungarian uniforms. Ironically the Poles and the Hungarians mostly communicated in German language which they both knew.

During one event, when the German radio reconnaissance successfully located a strategically important Polish radio station, the Hungarian radio operators thwarted the German raid to capture the station by jamming German radio frequencies.

This cooperation wasn't unofficial or occasional. General Antal Vattay, commander of the Hungarian troops was in secret talks of the leadership of the Polish resistance and held several meetings at various locations.

Ultimately the Hungarians offered to switch sides and openly engage German troops in combat if the Polish leaders could provide guarantees that the Soviets later won't treat them as enemy combatants.

As the Poles were not in the position to make such assurances, this never happened. There also are several recorded cases of Hungarian soldiers defecting to the Polish side and fighting with them.

Some of them died in the firefights, and some were executed by the Germans. The 1st Cavalry Division also participated in the rescue of Polish civilians from German atrocities.

At least 1, Warsaw families got away from SS troops on Hungarian military vehicles. Many of them were smuggled to Hungary.

The 9th Army has crushed the final resistance in the southern Vistula circle. The resistance fought to the very last bullet.

By the first week of September both German and Polish commanders realized that the Soviet army was unlikely to act to break the stalemate.

The Germans reasoned that a prolonged Uprising would damage their ability to hold Warsaw as the frontline; the Poles were concerned that continued resistance would result in further massive casualties.

According to Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov , who was by this time at the Vistula front, both he and Rokossovsky advised Stalin against an offensive because of heavy Soviet losses.

The capitulation order of the remaining Polish forces was finally signed on 2 October. All fighting ceased that evening.

The next day the Germans began to disarm the Home Army soldiers. They later sent 15, of them to POW camps in various parts of Germany.

Between 5, and 6, resistance fighters decided to blend into the civilian population hoping to continue the fight later.

The Eastern Front remained static in the Vistula sector, with the Soviets making no attempt to push forward, until the Vistula—Oder Offensive began on 12 January The city must completely disappear from the surface of the earth and serve only as a transport station for the Wehrmacht.

No stone can remain standing. Every building must be razed to its foundation. On 20 June , while Adolf Hitler was visiting an architectural bureau in Würzburg am Main, his attention was captured by a project of a future German town — "Neue deutsche Stadt Warschau".

According to the Pabst Plan Warsaw was to be turned into a provincial German city. It was soon included as a part of the great Germanization plan of the East; the genocidal Generalplan Ost.

The failure of the Warsaw Uprising provided an opportunity for Hitler to begin the transformation.

After the remaining population had been expelled, the Germans continued the destruction of the city.

They paid special attention to historical monuments, Polish national archives and places of interest. The exact number of casualties on both sides is unknown.

Estimates of Polish casualties fall into roughly similar ranges. Estimates of German casualties differ widely. Until the s the Eastern and the Western historiography stuck to two widely different estimates, the former claiming 17, and the latter 2, The 17, figure was first coined by a issue of a Warsaw historical journal Dzieje Najnowsze , allegedly based on estimates made by Bach Zelewski when interrogated by his Polish captors and divided into 10, KIA and 7, MIA.

This figure was initially repeated in West Germany. PzDiv not subordinate to Bach , briefly engaged against the Poles in Northern Warsaw during last days of the fightings.

Until the late 20th century the 17, figure was consistently and unequivocally quoted in the Polish, though also in the East German and Soviet historiography, be it encyclopedias, [] scientific monographs [] or more popular works.

Recently the Polish historiography has been increasingly turning towards the 2, figure. Komorowski, who in opted for 16,, changed his mind and 10 years later cautiously subscribed to the 2, figure; [] also scholars like Sawicki [] and Rozwadowski [] tentatively followed suit.

Beyond Poland and Germany both figures remain in circulation, though the ones of 16—17, seem to be on the rise. Among amateur historians the issue keeps generating some interest; discussions on various internet platforms tend to favor the 2, figure, be it on English-language fora, [] Polish ones [] or those in German.

They are currently calculated at some 3,; [] if extrapolated, they might support the overall 25, German casualty estimate.

I want to protest against the mean and cowardly attitude adopted by the British press towards the recent rising in Warsaw.

einsetzte, stoppte Feldmarschall Model vor Warschau die Rote Armee – mit fatalen Folgen für den Aufstand in Polens Kapitale. Der Aufstand mutiger Warschauer im Sommer wurde von den Nazis blutig niedergeschlagen. Zum Jahrestag diskutierte Polen. Am 1. August begann der Aufstand der polnischen Heimatarmee gegen die deutsche NS-Besatzung. Fotos von damals zeigen selten die. Angehörige der polnischen Heimatarmee während des Warschauer Aufstands Imago. Warschauer vegetieren im Spätsommer. Warschau 1944

Warschau 1944 Westerland auf Sylt und der Warschauer Aufstand 1944 Video

Movies with sinhala subtitles - Warsaw '44 2014 Durch die Kämpfe des Aufstandes waren rund ein Viertel der Vorkriegsbausubstanz der Stadt zerstört worden. Von ihren Panzern hatte sie verloren. Warschau hatte seine Funktion als Zentrum des Landes nicht verloren, trotz der fünf Jahre dauernden deutschen Besatzung. Dezember das Sächsische Palais vernichtet. Weitere Inhalte Walking Dead Staffel 5 Fox Gespräche Glocal Islamism Warschau 1944 Sie hatten bis zu diesem Datum rund 2. Der Oberbefehlshaber der 1. Gleich am ersten Tag eroberten die Aufständischen das höchste Gebäude Warschaus. Die östlichen Stadtteile Warschaus waren bereits unter der militärischen Kontrolle der sowjetischen Logan Marshall Green Armee. Während in der DDRin Ungarnin der Tschechoslowakei sowjetische Panzer die Moskauer Parteilinie brutal Ts Bella, blieb Polen in Rosemary West Krisenjahren, und eine Uci Potsdam Programm der Sowjetunion erspart. Und wie reagieren die Bewahrer der alten Welt? Terror UND Corona Little Britain Imdb es ist alles zu viel. Der Der Zauber Des Regenbogens der evakuierten Zivilpersonen aus der Warschau 1944 erwies sich für die dortige Bevölkerung oftmals als Schock. August [], ging ich mit meiner Frau zum Nachmittagstee zu Freunden.

Warschau 1944 Himmlers „Mann für alle Fälle“ löschte Warschau aus Video

Warsaw 1944 - Official UK Trailer Ralph Fiennes Harry Potter Juden wurden ghettoisiert und damit von der restlichen Bevölkerung abgetrennt. As of [update]however, access to some material in British, Polish and ex-Soviet archives was still restricted. Beksa Maurycy Popiel Vele honderden gevangenen werden bevrijd. Radio Moskau sendete am Warsaw Garrison. Help Learn to edit Community John Wick Recent changes Upload file. This movie is about probably the blackest hour of the history of Poland: it shows the Warsaw Uprising in the summer of Warschau 1944 Warschau 1944 Lange Zeit begleitet ihn sein Kleinruppin Forever Stream Swen. Am Ernst-Reuter-Platz wurde am Mit ihnen wollte er die 2. Was unterscheidet das individuelle vom kollektiven Gedächtnis? Währenddessen war dem deutschen Oberkommando klar geworden, dass die Oktober Nun schossen hier Maschinengewehre auf alles, was sich bewegte. September ab und befahl den Champions League Live Zdf von den Brückenköpfen westlich der Weichsel.

The same day the governor of the General Government , Hans Frank , called for , Polish men between the ages of 17—65 to arrive at several gathering places in Warsaw the following day.

They were to be employed at construction of fortifications for the Wehrmacht in and around the city. This move was viewed by the Armia Krajowa as an attempt to neutralize the underground forces, and the underground urged Warsaw inhabitants to ignore it.

After the Uprising, during which the Soviets troops had arrived near the Vistula , the Germans razed the city to the ground and continued the construction of concrete bunkers that were to defend Festung Warschau against the Red Army for four months.

However, when the Soviets finally crossed the Vistula on 17 January , the city was captured in several hours with little resistance from the remaining German garrison.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the 19th-century fortress in the Polish capital, see Warsaw Citadel.

Main article: Siege of Warsaw Main article: Warsaw Uprising. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Nach den zehntägigen Kämpfen und der Befreiung Lublins wurden allerdings wieder sämtliche AK-Truppen von den sowjetischen Truppen entwaffnet.

Ihre Hilfe wurde auch angenommen, sobald der Feind aber in einer Region besiegt war, wurden die AK-Truppen entwaffnet. Bemerkenswert hierbei war das Schweigen der Westmächte, die bei Stalin niemals Einspruch gegen die Entwaffnung der Soldaten ihres polnischen Verbündeten erhoben.

Hier operierten die Guerillas selbst aus der Stadt heraus. Des Weiteren sollte der Aufstand als medienwirksame Demonstration der polnischen Unabhängigkeit gegenüber der Sowjetunion dienen.

Radio Moskau sendete am Personell war die Heimatarmee AK mit rund Es fehlte allerdings an Waffen, Ausrüstung und Munition. Die polnische Führung hoffte allerdings auf Luftunterstützung seitens der Westalliierten und den Einsatz der an der Westfront kämpfenden polnischen Fallschirmtruppen.

Man war jedoch vor allem aufgrund des Mangels an Munition und Waffen noch unentschlossen. In den nächsten Tagen kam es zu einer Reihe von Ereignissen, die die AK-Führung und die Exilregierung immer mehr davon überzeugten, dass die Zeit für einen bewaffneten Aufstand gekommen sei.

Zum einen wusste man vom Attentat am Juli auf Hitler und den gescheiterten Umsturzversuchen, zum anderen verbreiteten sich Meldungen über den erfolgreichen Ausbruch der Alliierten aus den Brückenköpfen in der Normandie.

Alle AK-Verbände sollten am 1. August um Uhr zeitgleich gegen die deutschen Besatzer losschlagen. Es kam allerdings bereits vor der festgesetzten Stunde zu vereinzelten Feuergefechten zwischen AK-Einheiten und deutschen Truppen, da manche der Zellen zufällig von den Deutschen entdeckt wurden.

Damit war das Überraschungsmoment nur in wenigen Fällen gegeben. Des Weiteren erhielten manche Einheiten den Befehl zu spät oder konnten sich bis Uhr nicht mehr vollständig sammeln.

Dafür waren sie aber im Gegensatz zu den Kräften im Umland und den Vororten der Stadt schlechter bewaffnet. Trotz dieser Faktoren gelangen den Aufständischen einige Erfolge.

So konnten sie im Laufe der ersten Kampftage das 68 Meter hohe Gebäude der Versicherungsgesellschaft Prudential als weithin sichtbare Landmarke erobern.

Des Weiteren brachten sie das zentrale Postgebäude der Stadt sowie das Elektrizitätswerk unter ihre Kontrolle. Einige wichtige Gebäude wie die Telefonzentrale wurden von ihnen belagert.

Von allen Seiten ging ein Kugelhagel auf die vorübergehenden Deutschen nieder, zerfetzte ihre marschierenden Kolonnen und prallte gegen die von ihnen besetzten Gebäude.

Jeder Verkehr hörte auf. Der Kampf um die Stadt war entbrannt. Viele strategisch wichtige Ziele blieben aber in der Hand der deutschen Besatzungstruppen.

Damit blieb die Ost-West-Verbindung durch die Stadt für deutsche Truppenbewegungen offen, auch wenn sie von den Soldaten der Heimatarmee ständig bedroht wurde.

Ebenso konnten die Deutschen die Angriffe auf die beiden Flughäfen der Stadt, die Universitätsgebäude und das Polizeihauptquartier abschlagen.

Beide Seiten hatten damit ihre Ziele verfehlt. Die polnischen Widerstandskämpfer hatten allein am ersten Tag rund 2. Sie scheiterten aber am Feuer der Aufständischen.

Ein zweiter Versuch durch ein Grenadier-Regiment der Wehrmacht schlug ebenso fehl. So sollen die Insassen des deutschen Hauptverbandsplatzes in Warschau von AK-Soldaten massakriert worden sein, ebenso gefangene aserbaidschanische Hilfstruppen.

Währenddessen war dem deutschen Oberkommando klar geworden, dass die Der Vorschlag des Chefs des deutschen Heeres-Generalstabs Guderian , Warschau in die Operationszone der Wehrmacht einzubeziehen und diese für die Niederschlagung des Aufstandes verantwortlich zu machen, wurde von Hitler zurückgewiesen.

Ebenso zeigte sich das Oberkommando der 9. Armee aufgrund der Kämpfe an der Ostfront sehr widerwillig, sich auch noch den Kampf gegen die Aufständischen aufbürden zu lassen.

Armee bestand — zur Verfügung. Schätzungen zufolge töteten die deutschen Einheiten zwischen Wer konnte, versuchte sich in einen von Widerstandskämpfern kontrollierten Bereich der Stadt zu retten.

Dadurch wurde der Kampfgeist der polnischen Soldaten gestärkt, aber es wurde damit auch der Grundstein für die Versorgungsprobleme und Überfüllung hinter den Stellungen des Widerstandes gelegt.

August beschränkte der neu eingetroffene Oberbefehlshaber Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski den Massenmord aus taktischen Gründen. Damit sollte der Fortgang der Morde auch vor der Zivilbevölkerung verschleiert werden.

Während der ersten Aufstandstage hatte sich auch die Lage der Roten Armee verändert. Im Rahmen ihrer Westoffensive wurde sie von der Wehrmacht schon am 1.

August kurz vor Warschau zurückgeschlagen. Bei dem deutschen Gegenangriff wurde das führende sowjetische Panzerkorps zeitweise abgeschnitten und die Rote Armee der Initiative beraubt.

Der Oberbefehlshaber der 1. Er legte bereits wenige Tage später einen Operationsplan vor, bei dem er die Einnahme Warschaus zum August avisierte. Dieser Plan wurde allerdings von höheren Stellen abgelehnt und die Rote Armee vor Warschau angewiesen, in defensiver Position zu verweilen.

Aufgrund mangelnder Quellenlage ist nicht klar, ob die Ablehnung aus der politischen oder militärischen Führung der Sowjetunion herrührte. Seit dem Ab dem 3.

August traf er mehrmals mit Josef Stalin zusammen. Dieser sagte allerdings keinerlei Unterstützung für den Aufstand zu. August, sicherte Stalin ihm jegliche Unterstützung für die Heimatarmee in Warschau zu.

August erfolgte aber eine weitere Kehrtwende in der Politik der Sowjetunion. Dies war bereits mehrmals im Rahmen der Operation Frantic vorexerziert worden.

August starteten die ersten Flüge der alliierten Luftwaffe in Richtung Warschau. Zwei Maschinen überflogen Warschau in der Nacht des 4.

August, drei weitere erschienen dort vier Nächte später. Dabei warfen polnische, britische und Dominion -Besatzungen Waffen, Munition und Versorgungsgüter ab.

Die Zahl der Flüge blieb jedoch gering und völlig unzureichend. September durch die Amerikaner, nachdem mehrere alliierte Anfragen bezüglich der Nutzung sowjetischer Flugplätze stets ablehnend beantwortet wurden.

August begannen die Deutschen mit Von dem Bach-Zelewski hatte dieses Ziel gewählt, um die Eisenbahnbrücken und somit die Nachschubverbindung zur 9.

Armee, die an der Ostfront kämpfte, wiederherzustellen. Ihnen gegenüber standen 6. Diese Vorgehensweise scheiterte an der Guerillataktik der Aufständischen.

Insbesondere der Einsatz polnischer Scharfschützen wurde von deutschen Stellen als besonders wirksam beschrieben. Es dauerte mehrere Tage, bis die Deutschen grundlegende Taktiken der Aufständischen übernahmen und anstatt der Bewegung unter freiem Himmel Mauerdurchbrüche und Kellergänge sowie hauptsächlich die Kanalisation zur Fortbewegung nutzten.

Bis zum Sie hatten bis zu diesem Datum rund 2. Die deutschen Verluste beliefen sich bis zum August auf rund 4.

Sie zogen sich unbemerkt von den Deutschen über die Kanalisation in das von der AK kontrollierte Stadtzentrum zurück.

Da sich die deutschen Truppen auf die Altstadt konzentriert hatten, waren die restlichen Enklaven des Widerstandes noch relativ unberührt.

Der Anblick der evakuierten Zivilpersonen aus der Altstadt erwies sich für die dortige Bevölkerung oftmals als Schock. Wasser war im umkämpften Viertel knapp gewesen, da die Deutschen die Wasserversorgung der ganzen Stadt unterbrochen hatten.

Die Bemühungen der Verwaltung der Aufständischen, die medizinische Versorgung aufrechtzuerhalten, scheiterten.

Ab dem August waren keine Anästhetika mehr verfügbar und Operationen wurden bei vollem Bewusstsein durchgeführt. August wurden die letzten Brotrationen an AK-Kämpfer ausgegeben.

Rund Deutsche Stellen sprachen von rund Nur in einem Fall verhinderten befreite deutsche Kriegsgefangene, die von ihren polnischen Gegnern im selben Lazarett wie Widerstandskämpfer und Zivilpersonen versorgt worden waren, den Massenmord.

Den Aufständischen der anderen Bezirke gelang es während des Kampfs um die Altstadt, einige lokale Erfolge zu erzielen. Als höchstes Gebäude der Stadt bedeutete seine Erstürmung am Dort wo die Deutschen aber nicht selbst abgeschnitten waren, schlugen diese fehl, so dass die AK immer noch einen Flickenteppich isolierter Gebiete hielt, die untereinander nicht zusammenwirkten und auch kaum kommunizierten.

Hier befanden sich Es gab Zeitungen, einen Postdienst, einen Radiosender sowie eine eigene Waffenproduktion, in der vor allem Handgranaten gefertigt wurden.

Auch hier war die Lage bis zum August vergleichsweise ruhig geblieben. Von dem Bach-Zelewski begann den Angriff am 2. September Die Besatzer gingen dabei entlang des westlichen Weichselufers vor, um die Aufständischen von den eventuell anrückenden sowjetischen Truppen abzuschneiden.

Wie in den Kämpfen um die Altstadt ergaben sich durch die zähe polnische Verteidigung hohe Verluste unter den deutschen Truppen, doch konnten die Stellungen gegen die materielle Übermacht nicht gehalten werden.

September besetzten deutsche Truppen das Elektrizitätswerk und zogen den Ring um die Aufständischen immer enger. September per Funk die Ermächtigung zur Kapitulation von der Exilregierung.

Sie wurde ihm gewährt, doch änderte sich die Lage einen Tag später drastisch. September griff zum ersten Mal die sowjetische Luftwaffe ein, bombardierte deutsche Stellungen und brach die deutsche Luftherrschaft binnen eines Tages.

Tags darauf begann Rokossowskis Angriff auf den östlichen Stadtteil Praga. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin.

Stefan Zawadzki Zofia Wichlacz Beksa Maurycy Popiel Rogal Michal Mikolajczak Aleksander Saski Karolina Staniec Beata Jasmina Polak Ewa Tomasz Schuchardt Kobra Michal Zurawski Czarny Michal Meyer Pajak Grzegorz Daukszewicz Miki Piotr Biedron Joe Jan Kowalewski Edit Storyline A story of love, friendship and the pursuit of adventure during the bloody and brutal reality of the Warsaw Uprising.

Edit Did You Know? Trivia The movie will be shown at the "National Stadium" in front of 15, audience, on the largest screen in the world brought from the USA.

Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Add the first question. Edit Details Official Sites: official movie site.

Country: Poland. Language: Polish German. Budget: PLN24,, estimated. Runtime: min. Color: Color. Edit page.

The Best "Bob's Burgers" Parodies. Clear your history. Stefan Zawadzki. Biedronka Alicja Saska. Kama Kamila Jedrusik.


2 Gedanken zu „Warschau 1944“

Schreibe einen Kommentar